If You’re ‘Skinny Fat,’ You Might Be at Increased Risk of Dementia - The Proactive Health Management Plan
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If You’re ‘Skinny Fat,’ You Might Be at Increased Risk of Dementia

Being “skinny fat” may be worse than just being obese.

Being overweight or obese is associated with a host of increased health risks, including heart disease, cancer, and in some cases, dementia.

Now researchers are finding that people who are “skinny fat,” or have sarcopenic obesity, may also have an increased risk of compromised brain function. This may predict a person’s risk of Alzheimer’s disease, the most common type of dementia.

Having sarcopenic obesity means having a high mass of fat and a combination of low muscle mass and strength.

Researchers at Florida Atlantic University’s Comprehensive Center for Brain Health knew that sarcopenia and obesity can harm cognitive function and wanted to further investigate the link between body mass and composition and the early signs of Alzheimer’s disease.

The lead author, Dr. James Galvin, associate dean for clinical research and professor of integrated medical sciences at Florida Atlantic University’s Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, believes that the combination of sarcopenic and obesity can create a higher threat to mental performance compared to the individual effects of sarcopenia or obesity alone.

Galvin and his co-authors published a study in the journal Clinical Interventions in Aging on their findings this month.

To investigate potential risk, the researchers used data from 353 participants with an average age of 69. Researchers assessed the relationship of sarcopenic obesity with cognition testing.

Testing included a cognitive assessment, animal naming, and functional tests of grip strength and standing from a seated position. They used this information in comparison to one’s body composition — their body mass index, percentage of body fat, and muscle mass.

After analysis, researchers discovered that those with high body fat and low muscle mass, or “skinny fat” participants, had the lowest performance on global cognition and overall health. Specifically, these people were limited in their ability to perform executive function.

Sarcopenic obesity’s impairment was followed by those who just had sarcopenia or had low muscle tone, and then those who only had obesity.

Obesity and sarcopenia alone had negative associations with mental flexibility, self-control, orientation, and working memory. However, when people had both body types, the outcomes were more profound.

How do people become ‘skinny fat’?

As people age, the body naturally loses muscle mass in a process that’s called sarcopenia.

Previous research has already documented that sarcopenia is linked to impairment in skills which involve executive functions, speed, and memory. These deficits are further linked to limited abilities in conflict resolution, as well as selective attention.

Obesity, on the other hand, plays a role in function through various vascular, metabolic, behavioral, and even inflammatory mechanisms. These limitations are thought to contribute to limited self-monitoring, goal-directed behavior, diminished impulse control, and reduced energy balance maintenance.

Dr. Gayatri Devi, a neurologist specializing in memory disorders at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City and author of “The Spectrum of Hope: An Optimistic and New Approach to Alzheimer’s Disease and other Dementias,” agrees that the body’s health is tied to overall mental health as people age.

“The takeaway from this particular associational study is that good general health is important for good brain health,” Devi explained.

The researchers believed that the effects of low muscle mass were the primary reason for the cognitive decline. It’s thought that obesity worsened these effects.

“Understanding the mechanisms through which this syndrome may affect cognition is important, as it may inform efforts to prevent cognitive decline in later life by targeting at-risk groups with an imbalance between lean and fat mass,” said lead study author Galvin in a statement. “They may benefit from programs addressing loss of cognitive function by maintaining and improving strength and preventing obesity.”

Although scientists don’t know why obesity alone is associated with cognitive dysfunction, they believe it may be linked to sedentary behavior, inflammation, and vascular damage.

Galvin’s co-researcher, Magdalena I. Tolea, PhD, a research assistant professor of integrated medical science at the Schmidt College of Medicine, believes that testing for sarcopenia and obesity measurements can help doctors estimate the risk of cognitive impairment in the future.

“Testing grip strength by dynamometry can be easily administered within the time constraints of a clinical visit, and body mass index is usually collected as part of annual wellness visits,” she said.

While the study notes several factors contribute to cognitive decline, researchers don’t give definitive proof that being “skinny fat” causes Alzheimer’s disease. Rather, it’s a factor in discovering more about the condition.

Devi believes that more studies need to be conducted before any final conclusions can be made. “As with all associational studies, this data needs to be replicated in other studies and different populations,” she said.

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, 5.7 million Americans are currently living with the disease. By 2020, there will be nearly 14 million.

“To stave off cognitive decline and keep our brains healthy as we get older, we must watch what we eat and exercise more — not only to reduce body fat, but also to increase muscle mass,” Devi said.

 

The above article is courtesy of My EZ Health Guide and is intended for informational purposes only.

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34 Comments
  • Ruth Ellen Allred
    Posted at 03:57h, 07 May

    Yeppers my mother had Alzheimer’s . I will get fit to hopefully avoid the slow goodbye..sad sad sad sad disease..

  • Ruth Ellen Allred
    Posted at 03:56h, 07 May

    Yeppers my mother had Alzheimer’s .praying and will get fit to hopefully avoid the slow goodbye.sad sad sad sad disease.

  • Brenda
    Posted at 19:24h, 02 October

    Interesting information

  • Darlene
    Posted at 15:57h, 29 September

    Will def pass this on to my family members

  • Kathryn
    Posted at 12:12h, 29 September

    Very interesting article with great information. The information is something we can keep in mind when we go throughout our day to day lives.

  • Jessica Seeley-Rapol
    Posted at 12:12h, 18 September

    Good information

  • Brenda
    Posted at 14:50h, 13 September

    Good information

  • Katie
    Posted at 20:13h, 12 September

    Very interesting

  • Tiffany G
    Posted at 04:22h, 12 September

    Very interesting.

  • Lorena
    Posted at 02:42h, 12 September

    I believe I am skinny fat. I started jogging.

    • Nancy
      Posted at 17:04h, 12 September

      Hi Lorena! Good for you for taking action! We do encourage consulting with a health professional before starting a diet or workout program. Keep in mind, you can always reach out to our Health Coaches by calling (855)498-4643 or emailing coaches@thePHMP.com.
      I also want to share wikipedia’s definition of sarcopenic obesity, or “skinny fat”.
      Sarcopenic obesity is a medical condition which is defined as the presence of both sarcopenia and obesity. Sarcopenia refers to the presence of low muscle mass and either low muscular strength or low physical performance. When this is accompanied by a high fat mass the condition is known as sarcopenic obesity.

  • Kristina Lindsey
    Posted at 01:26h, 12 September

    Very interesting…

  • Connie Dishman
    Posted at 00:04h, 12 September

    Very intersting

  • Elisabeth Beinecke
    Posted at 23:59h, 11 September

    Very good read

  • Andrew
    Posted at 23:31h, 11 September

    Interesting. What levels of fat and muscle qualify someone as “skinny fat”?

    • Nancy
      Posted at 17:29h, 12 September

      Hi Andrew,
      This may not answer your question completely, but this is what Magdalena I. Tolea, PhD advises in the article, “Testing grip strength by dynamometry can be easily administered within the time constraints of a clinical visit, and body mass index is usually collected as part of annual wellness visits.”
      We recommend you consult with a health professional who can give you the best advice.
      You can also reach out to our Health Coaches by calling (855)498-4643 or emailing coaches@thePHMP.com.

  • Joan Gaedeke
    Posted at 22:02h, 11 September

    Good information

  • Leeanne Whittington
    Posted at 20:38h, 11 September

    Interesting

  • Lori Rodeheaver
    Posted at 18:07h, 11 September

    This is good to know

  • Kim wilhelm
    Posted at 17:53h, 11 September

    Those who are “skinny fat” have health risks as well as those who are obese.

  • Deb Thramer
    Posted at 17:48h, 11 September

    Thank you very good info, both my family and my husband’s have Alzheimer’s. Will not take this lightly and increase my activity including moderate weight training.

    • Nancy
      Posted at 17:33h, 12 September

      Wonderful, Deb! Knowledge and prevention are so important!

  • Sadelle
    Posted at 16:16h, 11 September

    I believe that being “skinny fat” could cause many problems as you get older, even possibly Alzheimer’s. Even though they don’t know if it’s a known fact about the affects, people should still build muscle mass no matter what age. It said in this article as you get older you naturally lose body fat..that may be true but that doesn’t mean you can’t gain muscle at that age either! People need to know the difference and start changing their habits at a younger age so it easier as he get older.

    • Nancy
      Posted at 17:36h, 12 September

      Thank you for the great feedback!

  • melissa hernandez
    Posted at 16:01h, 11 September

    Interesting article

  • Rachel Rogers
    Posted at 15:37h, 11 September

    Great article! Thank you!

  • Anthony belle
    Posted at 15:37h, 11 September

    Very good

  • Janie
    Posted at 15:26h, 11 September

    Would like a follow up article on exercises age appropriate & helpful.

  • Luke cluts
    Posted at 15:26h, 11 September

    Very interesting read!

  • Tara Artman
    Posted at 15:26h, 11 September

    Very interesting read! Good information!

  • Luke cluts
    Posted at 15:25h, 11 September

    Interesting read!

  • William Musser
    Posted at 15:23h, 11 September

    Thank you

  • Laurie
    Posted at 15:22h, 11 September

    The title got my attention. The information was interesting.

  • Lisa Bennett
    Posted at 15:17h, 11 September

    Very interesting information